Joaquin de Arredondo, 1776-1837, was one of the most influential and ruthless leaders in North American history. He was a Bourbon loyalist who governed Texas and the other interior provinces of New Spain during the Mexican War for Independence. He governed a vast and inhospitable region and fought revolutionaries, generals who had served in Napoleon’s army, pirates, and various Indian groups, all attempting to take over the his region of responsibility. He led the loyalist Army into Texas, the last by a Spanish force, to suppress a rebellion known in Texas history as the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition, also known as the Republican Army of the North flying a green flag. He decimated the rebels south of San Antonio, took over the town and systematically executed rebel leaders. Many citizens fled, and in one year the population of Texas was reduced in half. This battle was also called the First Texas Revolution. Ironically, he later approved the entry of outsiders into Texas to populate the state and to act as a buffer against intruders, but it ultimately led to the Second Texas Revolution at the Battle of The Alamo and San Jacinto. This biography is long overdue and a stellar contribution to borderlands history.