Scholars have long assumed that Spanish colonial rule had only a limited demographic impact on the Philippines, and that Filipinos had acquired immunity to Old World diseases prior to the Spanish arrival. This book challenges these assumptions in the 16th and 17th centuries. The author convincingly demonstrates that the Filipino population suffered a significant decline in the early colonial period. She also shows that the conquest of the Philippines was bloodier than has often been supposed, Comparisons are made with the impact of Spanish colonial rule in the Americas. An expertly researched work.