The author explores what happened to Indigenous life after contact with Spaniards in the complex interaction of cultures. He explores to what degree did traditional ways persist. While elements of precontact life was eliminated such as human sacrifice, others persisted. Before and after the conquest religion was central to life on the Island capital and the author uses both Nahua and Spanish archival documents to give us a new perspective on these interactions. 6 x 9 size. Co-published with The Academy of America Franciscan History in Mission San Luis Rey in Oceanside, California.